In a mere 4 hours, North America experienced a cascade that led to $6 billion in losses and at least 11 deaths. 13 cities which once relied on electricity for normal function were forced to use candles and red tail lights. At the end of the day one question needed to be asked,
“What happens now?”
Since the event, many changes have been made to build a smarter grid. However, we should be reminded that in exercising complex systems the risk of catastrophe still persists.